Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR)

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR) is a sub-atomic model to anticipate the geometry of the iotas making up a particle where the electrostatic powers between an atoms valence electrons are limited around a focal molecule. The hypothesis is otherwise called Gillespieâ€Nyholm hypothesis, after the two researchers who created it). As per Gillespie, the Pauli Exclusion Principle is more significant in deciding atomic geometry than the impact of electrostatic aversion. As per VSEPR hypothesis, the methane (CH4) particle is a tetrahedron in light of the fact that the hydrogen bonds repulse one another and equitably disseminate themselves around the focal carbon molecule. Utilizing VSEPR To Predict Geometry of Molecules You cannot utilize an atomic structure to foresee the geometry of a particle, despite the fact that you can utilize the Lewis structure. This is the reason for VSEPR hypothesis. The valence electron matches normally orchestrate with the goal that they will be as far separated from one another as could reasonably be expected. This limits their electrostatic aversion. Take, for instance, BeF2. On the off chance that you see the Lewis structure for this particle, you see every fluorine iota is encircled by valence electron sets, with the exception of the one electron every fluorine molecule has that is clung to the focal beryllium molecule. The fluorine valence electrons pull as far separated as could reasonably be expected or 180â °, giving this exacerbate a straight shape. In the event that you add another fluorine iota to make BeF3, the furthest the valence electron sets can get from one another is 120â °, which frames a trigonal planar shape. Twofold and Triple Bonds in VSEPR Theory Sub-atomic geometry is dictated by potential areas of an electron in a valence shell, not by what number of what number of sets of valence electrons are available. To perceive how the model functions for a particle with twofold bonds, think about carbon dioxide, CO2. While carbon has four sets of holding electrons, there are just two spots electrons can be found in this atom (in every one of the twofold bonds with oxygen). Repugnance between the electrons is least when the twofold bonds are on inverse sides of the carbon molecule. This structures a direct particle that has a 180â ° bond edge. For another model, think about the carbonate particle, CO32-. Similarly as with carbon dioxide, there are four sets of valence electrons around the focal carbon particle. Two sets are in single bonds with oxygen molecules, while two sets are a piece of a twofold bond with an oxygen particle. This implies there are three areas for electrons. Shock between electrons is limited when the oxygen molecules structure a symmetrical triangle around the carbon iota. Accordingly, VSEPR hypothesis predicts the carbonate particle will take a trigonal planar shape, with a 120â ° bond point. Special cases to VSEPR Theory Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion hypothesis doesn't generally anticipate the right geometry of particles. Instances of special cases include: change metal particles (e.g., CrO3 is trigonal bipyramidal, TiCl4 is tetrahedral)odd-electron atoms (CH3 is planar instead of trigonal pyramidal)some AX2E0 particles (e.g., CaF2 has a bond point of 145â °)some AX2E2 atoms (e.g., Li2O is straight as opposed to bent)some AX6E1 atoms (e.g., XeF6 is octahedral as opposed to pentagonal pyramidal)some AX8E1 particles Source R.J. Gillespie (2008), Coordination Chemistry Reviews vol. 252, pp. 1315-1327, Fifty years of the VSEPR model

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Homework 5 Solution Free Essays

Assessment 4001 Spring 2011 Homework Set #5 Solution PAGE 1 # 1 an) Amount Realized$37,500 Basis(45,000) Real Loss(7,500) Recognized Loss$0 on the grounds that individual use resource c. The genuine misfortune is $0. b) Same as (a). We will compose a custom article test on Schoolwork 5 Solution or on the other hand any comparative subject just for you Request Now Like-kind trade rules don't have any significant bearing to individual use resources c)Her perceived misfortune is $0. Since the type of the exchange is a burglary, the perceived misfortune is the lesser of the balanced premise or the honest assessment of the benefit, decreased by the protection continues that she got (see Chapter 6). Accordingly, the open door for the burglary misfortune conclusion on close to home use property is absent for this situation in light of the fact that the protection continues got of $37,500 equivalent the honest assessment of $37,500. #2 a. amt realized$65,000 â€Å"loss† premise 76,000 Recognized Loss(11,000) b. $0. The returns of $68,000 are between the increase premise of $80,000 and the misfortune premise of $60,000. Along these lines, neither increase nor misfortune is perceived. #3 a. $225,000 b. $200,000 (note: just the structure can be devalued) c. $225,000 Basis for the addition is balanced premise d. She would be in an ideal situation to sell the house and purchase another. Since the house is her own home, she could prohibit the increase on special. At that point she would have the option to deteriorate the new house at a higher premise #4 a. Amt. Realized$265,000 Adj Basis 175,000 Real Gain90,000 b. Recoginzed Gain is $65,000 which is the less of acknowledged addition or boot got. c. Balanced premise of Land| $175,000| Gain Recognized| 65,000| Boot| (65,000)| Adj Basis of Building| 175,000| . Duty 4001 Spring 2011 Homework Set #5 Solution PAGE 2 . #5 Amt. Realized$1,235,000 [125000 + 900000 + 210000] Less: Basis of Apt850,000 Real Gain 385,000 b. Recog Gain$335,000 Cash in addition to contract Postponed Gain$50,000 . | Basis of Apt Bldg| $850,000| + gain recognized| 335,000| Less: Boot received| (335,000)| Basis of Office Bldg| $850,000| #6| | Cost| $200,000| Legal Fees| $21,500| Streets and Sewers| $700,000| Basis| $921,500| #7 Basis b4 casualty$10,000 Insurance continues 13,500 Casualty Gain3,500 Basis after protection †#8 FIFO technique used to figure out which offers were sold, in this way Tommy Is treated as having sold 100 of the offers he bought on 10/16/06 Per Share Basis = $7500/125 offers = $ X Number of Shares Sold (100) =$ 60 6,000 for every offer Basis of Shares Sold Sales Procceds| 18,000| Less: Basis| (6,000)| LTCG| $ 12,000| Tax 4001 Spring 2011 Homework Set #5 Solution PAGE3 30. | a. | Realized increase $9,000 [($12,000 honest evaluation of new asset+ $4,000 boot got)- $7,000 balanced premise of old asset]. Perceived gain= $4,000. | Postponed gain= $5,000. | New basis= $7,000 ($12,000 honest evaluation of new resource $5,000 deferred gain). | b. | Realized misfortune = $1,000. | Recognized loss= $-0-. | Postponed loss= $1,000. | New basis= $16,000 ($15,000 honest evaluation of new asset+ $1,000 deferred misfortune). | c. | Realized misfortune = $1,500. Perceived loss= $-0-. | Postponed loss= $1,500. | New basis= $9,500 ($8,000 honest assessment of new asset+ $1,500 delayed misfortune). | d. | Realized gain= $10,000. Perceived addition = $-0-. | Postponed gain= $10,000. | New premise = $22,000 ($32,000 honest assessment of new resource †$10,000 postponed| | gain). | e. | Realized increase = $2,000. | Recognized gain= $1,000. | Postponed gain= $1,000. | New basis= $10,000 ($11,000 hon est evaluation of new resource $1,000 delayed increase). | f. | Realized misfortune = $2,000. Perceived loss= $-0-. | Postponed loss= $2,000. | New basis= $10,000 ($8,000 honest evaluation of new asset+ $2,000 deferred misfortune). Assessment 4001 Spring 2011 Homework Set #5 Solution PAGE4 32. a. Since the proprietor is a proprietor financial specialist, the citizen use test applies. Supplanting the distribution center that is leased to different occupants with a shopping center that is leased to different inhabitants in an alternate area qualifies as substitution property. Sum acknowledged Adjusted premise Realized addition $ 700,000 (470,000) $ 230,000 Recognized increase $ - 0-The reason for the substitution property is: Cost Postponed gain Basis $ 700,000 (230,000) $ 470000 b. Since the proprietor is a proprietor client, the useful use test applies. Supplanting the distribution center utilized in his business with another stockroom in an alternate state which is to be utilized in his business qualifies as substitution property under the practical use test. Sum acknowledged Adjusted premise Realized increase Recognized addition $ 400,000 (300,000) $ 100,000 $ - 0-The reason for the substitution property is: Cost Postponed gain Basis $ 400,000 (100,000) $ 300,000 c. Since Swallow was a proprietor client of the structure, the useful use test applies. In this way, Swallow’s utilization of the substitution property and of the automatically changed over property must be the equivalent. Since Swallow’s utilization of the four-unit high rise is unique in relation to the utilization of the structure in its retail business, the apartment complex doesn't qualify as substitution property. Sum acknowledged Adjusted premise Realized increase Recognized addition $ 300,000 (250,000) $ 50,000 $ 50,000 The reason for the high rise is its expense of $300,000. d. Not qualified substitution property since they are proprietor clients so practical use test applies. In this manner they should perceive their acknowledged addition of $30,000 and their premise in the duplex is $200,000. Step by step instructions to refer to Homework 5 Solution, Papers

Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Remember, Remember, the 17th of December

Remember, Remember, the 17th of December… There has been some discussion on CollegeConfidential  and in the comments on my post announcing the 12/17 12:17 EA decision release. Specifically discussion about the reasons we picked that date and time. My favorite observation comes from optimistic-mom: 1217 and 2011 are prime numbers and MIT selects prime candidates is that a reason for the date and time! While Pharyngula on CollegeConfidential mused that perhaps it is an appeal to something which happened on a historically significant December 17th. I am going to continue to keep our reasons a deep, dark secret, but following Pharyngula and using their title here are some other momentous events from history which occured on 12/17s past according to Wikipedia: 546 â€" Gothic War: The Ostrogoths of King Totila conquer Rome by bribing the Byzantine garrison. 1538 â€" Pope Paul III excommunicates Henry VIII of England. 1777 â€" France formally recognizes the United States of America. 1790 â€" Discovery of the Aztec calendar stone. 1865 â€" First performance of the Unfinished Symphony by Franz Schubert. 1903 â€" The Wright Brothers make their first powered and heavier-than-air flight in the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 1935 â€" First flight of the Douglas DC-3 airplane. 1947 â€" First flight of the Boeing B-47 Stratojet strategic bomber. 1969 â€" Project Blue Book: The United States Air Force closes its study of UFOs, stating that sightings are generated as a result of A mild form of mass hysteria, Individuals who fabricate such reports to perpetrate a hoax or seek publicity, psychopathological persons, and misidentification of various conventional objects. 1989 â€" The first episode of television series The Simpsons, Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire, airs in the United States. 2003 â€" SpaceShipOne flight 11P, piloted by Brian Binnie, makes its first supersonic flight. 2010 â€" Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire. This act became the catalyst for the Tunisian Revolution. The success of the Tunisian protests sparked protests in several other Arab countries. Some of these events Id really prefer our applicants not to emulate (please: dont set yourself on fire or conquer any bastions of civilization ushering in centuries of dark ages tomorrow, anyone). Others would not be bad examples to follow (if you want to discover an ancient Aztec stone or fly a plane you invented, go ahead). Do any of these things have anything to do with why were going live on 12/17 at 12:17? No. What they have to with is this: history is awesome.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

William Wordsworth And Coleridge Vs. Coleridge - 2220 Words

The nineteenth century was known for a major shift in the understanding and significance of literature and poetry. During the eighteenth century the focus of literature was reason and then rationality took control of any form of literature written. Ideas of beauty both physical and emotional were to be centered concepts such as the destruction of passion in human behavior. In 1798 these ideas of literature were challenged by the publication of Lyrical Ballads, which featured the poetry of William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Wordsworth and Coleridge both had strong, and sometimes conflicting opinions about what came with well-written poetry. Their ideas were mainly about the creation of poetry and the role of poetry in the world. These major idea led to the creation of poetry that is complex to support a wide area of critical readings in a modern day. Wordsworth is famous for changing the diction thought acceptable in poetry, or strengthening the movement toward a mo re common or simplified poetic diction. He took some of the formal language out of poetry and replaced it with simple, concrete words. Common may be too strong of a word when you compare Wordsworth with more contemporary poetry. Wordsworth s poetry also draws attention to nature in a personal and lyrical way. Personal reactions to nature and interpretations gained from nature are important. Coleridge, in contrast, emphasized the imagination. His poetry involves the land of fantasy. InShow MoreRelatedThe Romantic Movement Of William Wordsworth And Samuel Taylor Coleridge Essay1427 Words   |  6 Pagesexpress their feelings for the love of poetry by conveying nature in their writings. Nature is considered an authoritative characteristic that motivates poets to write subjective poems that reflect on solidity and God. William Blake, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge were amongst the Romantic poets who published revolutionary Lyrical Ballads that illustrate the associ ation of human relationships with nature (ADD CITE). According to (ADD SOURCE HERE), these famous poets were categorizedRead MoreAnalysis Of Daffodils By William Wordsworth2381 Words   |  10 Pagesfilled with passion and emotion and all interpreted from the themes within nature. During this period, authors and artists alike found inspiration in things such as flowers, for example William Wordsworth’s classic entitled ‘daffodils’. In his poem he talks about seeing daffodils â€Å"flash upon that inward eye† (Wordsworth, Daffodils, 1815) when in â€Å"vacant or in pensive mood† meaning that he was preoccupied by his love for nature and that it inspired him in his writing, but also the inward eye meaning hisRead MoreNature vs. Society: Wordsworths Romantic Poetry1646 Words   |  7 PagesNature Vs. Society: Wordsworth’s Romantic Poetry Over time, poetry has changed and evolved in its sense of the word nature. In its beginnings the idea of nature or natural was seen as negative and evil. However, in more recent times due to the era of Romanticism, nature in poetry is viewed in a positive and even beautiful light. William Wordsworth was a poet who wrote his poetry with a romantic attitude. Furthermore Wordsworth wrote specifically the poems â€Å"We Are Seven† (WAS) and â€Å"Three YearsRead MoreThe Romantic Period Stressed Instincts, Affection, and Love1422 Words   |  6 PagesThe Romantic period or Romanticism was a literary movement that had sprung in England in late 18th century. The rise of the movement was precipitated by the issuing of Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge .The movement came to cope up with the general tenors of the Industrial and Enlightenment age .It stressed on things like instincts, affection , love,the heart over the head .It came also to celebr ate such things as mysticism and the natural world.Romanticism alsoRead MoreRomanticism versus Neoclassicism2775 Words   |  12 Pagesobjective world sets a premium on the faculty of the imagination, which is emphasized for two primary reasons. Romantics also set great store in the active and creative role that we play in relationships with the world, a world which each of us, as Wordsworth writes,  «half-creates and half-perceives ». In Romanticism, common people matter and individuals matter; the philosophy of the 18th. Century (Locke) finally comes to art as the Romantics recognize that the world is made up of all its individualsRead MoreThe Romantic Era1008 Words   |  5 Pageseighteenth century was the beginning of the Romantic Movement. This was the first time poets and authors were able to strive for originality. The Romantic era was more open to mythic, mystic and spirituality than the enlightenment era had ever been. William Blake was a romantic poet. Romanticism was a movement, which was marked primarily by its rejection of the enlightenment ideologies and scientific methods, as well as its emphasis on the natural world, emotions, artistry and the personal expressionRead More Mary Shelleys Frankenstein and Satanic-Promethean Ideals Essay2862 Words   |  12 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein and Satanic-Promethean Ideals      Ã‚  Ã‚   Mary Shelleys Frankenstein is a novel in conscious dialogue with canonical classics and contemporary works. It contains references to Coleridge, Wordsworth, and P. B. Shelley, but also to Cervantes and Milton. It is the latters Paradise Lost which informs the themes and structure of the novel more than any other source. Like many of her contemporaries, Mary Shelley draws parallels between Miltons Satan and the Titan PrometheusRead MoreCleanth Brookss Essay Irony as a Principle of Structure9125 Words   |  37 Pageswork is often split up into sections as follows (although other splits have also been suggested):Lines 1 - 37: On unity and harmony. Lines 38 - 72: The writer’s aims. Lines 73 - 118: What the tradition dictates (decorum). Lines 119 - 152: Invention vs. imitation (be consistent if you are original). Lines 153 - 188: On characterization (the four ages of man). Lines 189 - 219: On the gods, chorus and music (in tragic drama). Lines 220 - 250: On style (especially in satyr plays). Lines 251 - 274: On

Monday, May 11, 2020

Shakespeare s Othello, Iago And From Game Of Thrones

The difference in character from â€Å"Othello’s†, Iago and from â€Å"Game of Thrones†, Jorah Mormont is striking, Iago is evil and vindictive to the core, while Jorah used to spy on Daenerys, but fell in love with her instead. In Shakespeare â€Å"Othello† Iago clamors â€Å"I hate the moor†, this man is Othello, and is his chosen enemy. Iago, prays on his leaders weakness attempting to thoroughly destroy him. Jorah’s heart leads him to seek and follow the truth about his new master he serves. They are both complex individual’s who wish to gain something from or for their leaders. Going back in time, we will learn what makes each character tick and why they made the choices they did. This will show the clear difference between them. Iago is a jealous, power-hungry, man who wishes to destroy his military commanders (Othello) happiness over a promotion that was passed up for less experienced man. In â€Å"Seduction and Damnation of Ot hello,† Christofides writes that Iago â€Å"maliciously uses equivocation† to control Othello. This is seen as the story unfolds. Iago employs a wealthy; heart broken, foolish Roderigo, who is in love with Desdemona, Othellos new bride. Roderigo, is desperate to have Desdemona as his own, and a desperate man is a dangerous man. Iago, schemes up plots to destroy Othello by using the love sick Roderigo as his cover. In steps a man named Cassio, a close, loyal friend of Othellos. This is where the plot takes shape, as Iago tells Roderigo, that Desdemona

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Prehistoric civilization in the philippine Free Essays

string(56) " of preserving the ruder, non- agricultural hill-races\." A powerful and highly civilised nation comes in contact with a barbaric and isolated people, who have nevertheless advanced many steps on the road of progress, it would naturally be thought that the superior and conquering race would endeavour to collect and place on record information concerning such people: their manners, customs, language, religion, and traditions. Unfortunately, in the case of the Spanish conquests of the sixteenth century, that nation appears never to have considered it a duty to hand down to posterity any detailed description of the singularly interesting races they had vanquished. As it was with the Guanches of the Canaries, the Aztecs of Mexico, and the Quichuas of Peru, so was it with the Chamorro of the Ladrones, and the Tagalo-Bisaya tribes of the Philippines. We will write a custom essay sample on Prehistoric civilization in the philippine or any similar topic only for you Order Now The same Vandal spirit that prompted the conquistadores to destroy the Maya and Aztec literature also moved them to demolish the written records of the Philippine natives, and but few attempts were made to preserve relics or information concerning them. The Spanish priests, as the lettered men of those times, were the persons we should look to for such a work, but in their religious ardour they thought only of the ubjugation and conversion of the natives, and so, with the sword in one hand, and crucifix in the other, they marched through that fair land, ignoring and destroying the evidences of a strange semi-civilisation which should have been to them a study of the deepest interest. Fortunately, however, there were a few in that period who were interested in such matters, and who wrote accounts of the state of culture of the islanders of that early date. Some of these MSS. have been preserved in the archives of Manila, and have lately attracted the attention of Spanish scholars. Such is the article from which the greater part of these notes are taken. In the volume for 1891 of the Revista Ibero-Americana, published at Madrid, there appeared a series of papers contributed by the Bishop of Oviedo, and entitled â€Å"La antigua civilizacion de las Islas Filipinas,† in which he gives a very interesting description of the natives and their mode of life. The source of this information is – 119 an old folio manuscript written on rice-paper in the year 1610 from data collected at the period of the Spanish conquest of the Philippines by Legaspi. It is extended to the ear 1606, and relates minutely the condition of the islanders prior to the arrival of the Spanish. The codex is divided into five books, and these again into 183 capitulos or chapters. The writer lived in the group for twenty-nine years in order to complete his work, which is authorised by authentic signatures of responsible persons. Extracts have also been made from Miguel de Lo-arca’s account of the Philippines written in 1583, Dampier’s voyage in the Pinckerton collection, and Antonio de Morga’s â€Å"Sucesesos de las Islas Filipinas† The first historical existence of the Malay proper is traced to Menangkabau in the Archipelago, and by their vigour, energy, and skill have made themselves masters of the original inhabitants. At an early period they probably received instruction from Hindoo immigrants in the arts of working metals, spinning, weaving, ;c. As to the whence of the various Malayan tribes of the Philippines, it is most probable that they originally reached the archipelago from Borneo, or the Malay Peninsula. From northern Borneo the Sulu islands form a series of stepping-stones across to Mindanao. As the Tagalo language is looked upon as one of the purest of Malay ialects, and contains the least number of Sanscrit words, it may be inferred from this that the race has occupied the islands from an early date. It is possible that the first settlers were carried thither by ocean currents, and that the Kuro Siwo, or Black Current, which sweeps up past Luzon is also responsible for the existence of the Kabaran (a Malay tribe) in Formosa. From ancient times boats and men have drifted up from the Malay Islands to Japan, and W. E. Griffis, in his â€Å"Mikado’s Empire,† states that Shikoku and Kiushiu were inhabited by a mixed race descended from people who had come from Malaysia and South-Eastern Asia. It is most probable that Micronesia was settled from the Philippine Group, which thus became the meeting ground of the northern migration of Polynesians from Samoa, and the Micronesians proper. The Spanish codex before mentioned states that the Tagalo-Bisaya tribes were thought to be derived from the coasts of Malabar and Malacca, and that, according to tradition, they arrived at the islands in small vessels called barangayan, under the direction of dato or maguinoo (chiefs or leaders), who retained their chieftainship after the landing as the basis of a social organisation of a tribal kind, nd that every barangay (district or tribal division) was composed of about fifty families. Nothing definite appears to have been obtained from their traditions as to the original habitat of the race, and this may be accounted for by the supposition that the migration occurred at a remote period, and that all knowledge of their former home was lost. When a migratory – 120 race takes possession of new regions it maintains little or no correspondence with those left behind; thus in time they forget their old habitations, and their geographical knowledge is reduced to obscure and fading traditions. On arriving at their new home the invaders must have ejected the indigenous Aieta from the low-lying country, and driven them back into the mountains. Juan de Salcedo, the Cortes of the Philippines, in his triumphal march round the island of Luzon, was unable to conquer many of the hill tribes, both Aieta and Tagalo, some of whom have remained independent until the present time. The Spanish Government forbade all intercourse with these mountaineers on pain of one hundred lashes and two years’ imprisonment, and this edict had the effect of preserving the ruder, non- agricultural hill-races. You read "Prehistoric civilization in the philippine" in category "Papers" This invading race of Malays was divided into many different tribes, the principal ones being the Tagalo of Luzon and the Bisaya of the southern isles. The Tagalo or Ta-Galoc were the most numerous, and were endowed with all the valour and politeness which can be expected in a semi-civilised people. The Pampango and but easily civilised. The Bisaya were also called Pintados or â€Å"painted ones,† by the Spanish, from their custom of tatooing the body. Within this community of tribes there are numerous differences of dialects and customs, clothing, character, and physical structure, which in many cases indicate obvious traces of foreign mixture. As a race, the Philippine natives of the Malayan tribes are of moderate stature, well- formed, and of a coppery-red colour, or, as De Morga quaintly describes them, â€Å"They were of the colour of boiled quinces, having a clever disposition for anything they undertook: sharp, choleric, and resolute. † Both men and women were in the habit of anointing and perfuming their long black hair, which they wore gathered in a knot or roll on the back of the head. The women, who were of pleasing appearance, adorned their hair with Jewels, and also wore ear-pendants and finger-rings of gold. The men ad little or no beard, and both sexes were distinguished for their large, black eyes. The Zambales, or Beheaders, shaved the front part of the head, and wore on the skull a great lock of loose hair, which custom also obtained among the ancient Chamorro of the Ladrones. Most of the tribes filed their teeth, and stained them black with burnt cocoanut shell; while among the Bisaya the upper teeth were bored, and the perforations filled with gold, a singular custom observed by Marco Polo in China, and which was also practised in ancient Peru and Egypt. Many of the tribes are spoken of y the early Spanish navigators as being endowed with fair intellectual capacities, possessing great powers of imitation, sober, brave, and determined. The Tagalo character, according to some later writers, is difficult to define: the – 121 craniologist and physiognomist may often find themselves at fault. They are great children, their nature being a singular combination of vices and virtues. The costume of the men consisted of a short-sleeved cotton-tunic (chinina), usually black or blue, which came below the waist, a coloured cotton waistcloth, or kilt (bahaque), extending nearly to the knees, and over this a belt or sash of silk a andbreadth wide, and terminating in two gold tassels. On the right side hung a dagger (bararao) three palms long, and double-edged, the hilt formed of ivory or gold, and the sheath of buffalo-hide. They wore a turban (potong) on the head, and also leg-bands of black reeds or vines such  ¤s are seen among the Papuans of New Guinea. Chains, bracelets (calombiga), and armlets of gold, cornelian and agate were much worn, and he was reckoned a poor person who did not possess several gold chains. Hernando Requel, writing home to Spain, stated: â€Å"There is more gold in this island of Luzon than there is iron in Biscay. † The Tinguiane had a peculiar custom of wearing tightly-compressed bracelets, which stopped the growth of the forearm, and caused the hand to swell. Women wore the top’s, a bordered and ornamented cloth wrapped round the body, which was confined by a belt, and descended to the ankles. The bust was covered with a wide- sleeved camisita, or frock (baro), to which was sometimes added a handkerchief. The women of Luzon were without head-dress, but made use of a parasol of palm-leaves (payong). Among the Bisaya the women wore a small cap or hood, and in the slaves. Both sexes wore the same dress among the Ilocanos, the chief article of attire eing a loose coat (cabaya) similar to those of the Chinese. The dress of the Chiefs’ wives was more elegant than that of women of the common people (timaguas). They wore white robes, and others of crimson silk, plain or interwoven with gold, and trimmed with fringes and trinkets. From their ears were suspended golden pendants of excellent workmanship, and on their fingers and ankles were massive gold rings set with precious stones. The timaguas and slaves went barefooted, but the upper class wore shoes, the women being daintily shod with velvet shoes embroidered with gold. Both men and women were very cleanly and elegant in their persons and dress, and of a goodly mien and grace; they took great pains with their hair, rejoicing in its blackness, washing it with the boiled bark of a tree called gogo, and anointing it with musk oil and other perfumes. They bathed daily, and looked upon it as a remedy for almost every complaint. On the birth of a child the mother repaired to the nearest stream, and bathed herself and the little one, after which she returned to her ordinary occupation. Women were well treated among these people, and had for heir employment domestic work, needlework†in which they – 122 excelled†the spinning and weaving of silk a nd cotton into various fabrics, and also the preparation of the hemp, palm, and anana fibres. The Philippine natives, with the exception of some of the hill tribes, were diligent agriculturalists, this being their chief occupation. In some mountainous regions they adopted a system of terrace cultivation similar to that of China, Peru, and Northern Mexico in bygone times, and which may also be seen in Java. They cultivated rice, sweet potatoes, bananas, cocoanuts, sugar-cane, palms, various vegetable roots and ibrous plants. They hunted the buffalo, deer, and wild boar. The flesh of the buffalo, or karabao, was preserved for future use by being cut into slices and dried in the sun, when it was called tapa. Rice was prepared by being boiled, then pounded in a wooden mortar and pressed into cakes, thus forming the bread of the country. They made palm wine (alac or mosto) from the sap of various species of palms. Food was stored in raised houses similar to the pataka of the Maori. The first fruits of the harvest were devoted to the deified spirits of ancestors, called anito. l The Bisaya, hen planting rice, had the singular custom of offering a portion of the seed at each corner of the field as a sacrifice. The ordinary dainty among the islanders was the buyo or betel quid, consisting of a leaf of betel pepper (tambul or Siri) smeared over with burnt lime and wrapped round a piece of areca nut (bonga). â€Å"The Filipinos,† says the old Spanish padre, â€Å"lived in houses (bahei) built of bamboo, cane, and palm leaves, and raised upon foundation-piles about six feet from the ground. † These dwellings were supplied with cane screens in the place of divisions and doors. The elevated floor, where they ate and slept, was also made of split cane, and the whole structure was secured by reeds and cords for want of nails. They ascended to these houses by a portable ladder, which was removed when the inmates went out, a sign that no person might approach the dwelling, which was otherwise unsecured. The house was surrounded by a gallery or verandah (batalan), earthenware, and copper vessels for various purposes. They had, moreover, in their houses some low tables and chairs, also boxes called tampipi, which served for the purpose of keeping wearing apparel and Jewels. Their bedding consisted usually of mats manufactured from various fibres. The houses of the chiefs were much larger and better constructed than those of the timaguas. Many of their villages were built on the banks of rivers and the shores of lakes and harbours, so that they were surrounded by water, in the manner of the seaside dwellings of New Guinea and the Gulf of Maracaibo. Among the Tinguiane tree houses were made use of. In these they slept at night, in order to avoid being surprised by enemies, and – 123 defended themselves by hurling down stones upon the attacking party, exactly in the ame manner as the natives of New Britain do to this day. The external commerce of the Tagalo tribes was principally with China, of which nation there were vessels in Manila on the arrival of the Spanish. They are also said to have had intercourse with Japan, Borneo, and Siam. They had no coined money, but to facilitate trade they utilised gold as a medium of exchange in the form of dust and ingots, which were valued by weight. Magellan speaks of their system of weights and measures. These people were skilful shipwrights and navigators. The Bisaya were in the habit of making piratical forays among the isles. Their vessels were of arious kinds, some being propelled by oars or paddles, and others were provided with masts and sails. Canoes were made of large trees, and were often fitted with keels and decks, while larger vessels, called virey and barangayan were constructed of planks fastened with wooden bolts. The rowers, with busey (paddles) or oars (gayong), timed their work to the voices of others, who sung words appropriate to the occasion, and by which the rowers understood whether to hasten or retard their work. Above the rowers was a platform (bailio) on which the fighting men stood without embarrassing the rowers, and above this again was the carang or awning. They sometimes used outriggers (balancoire) on both sides of the vessel. The lapi and tapaque were vessels of the largest kind, some carrying as many as two hundred and fifty men. The barangan, a type of vessel used from the earliest times, was singularly like those of the ancients described by Homer. Society among the Tagalo-Bisaya tribes was divided into three classes, the chiefs and nobles, the common people (timagua), and the slaves. The principal of every social group†styled maguinoo among the Tagalo, bagani by the Manobo, and dat02 by the Bisaya†was the only political, military, and Judicial authority. These chieftainships were hereditary, and the same respect was shown to the women as to the men of the ruling families. Their power over the people was despotic, they imposed a tribute upon the harvests, and could at any time reduce a subject to slavery, or dispose of his property and children. The slaves were divided into two classes: the sanguihuileres, who were in entire servitude, as also were their children†lived and served in the houses of their masters; while the namamahayes lived in houses of their own, and only worked as slaves on special occasions, such as at harvesting and housebuilding. Among this latter class there obtained a peculiar half-bond system, and their having an only son, that child would be half free and half enslaved†that is, he would work one month for his owner and the next for himself. If they had more than one child, the first-born would – 124 follow the condition of the father, the second that of the mother, and so on. If there were uneven numbers, the last born was half free and half bond. Slaves were bought, sold, and exchanged like ordinary merchandise. In their social manners these people were very courteous, more especially the Luzon tribes. They never poke to a superior without removing the turban. They then knelt upon one knee, raised their hands to their cheeks, and awaited authority to speak. The hongi, or nose-pressing salutation of the Polynesians, was an ancient custom in the Philippine Group, and on the island of Timor. It also obtained among the Chamorr03 of the Ladrones, who termed it tshomiko. The Philippine natives addressed all superiors in the third person, and added to every sentence the word po, equivalent to senor. They were given to addresses replete with compliments, and were fond of the music of the cud, a guitar with two strings of copper wire. In regard to Judicial matters, all complaints were brought before the dato of the barangay (district) for examination. Though they had no written laws, they had established rules and customs by which all disputes were settled, and the chiefs recovered their fees by seizing the property not only of the vanquished party, but also of his witnesses. Trial by ordeal was common, the usual mode being that of plunging the arm into a vessel of boiling water and taking out a stone from the bottom; or a lighted torch was placed in the hands of the accused, and if the flame flickered towards him he was pronounced uilty. Theft was sometimes punished by death, in which case the condemned was executed by the thrust of a lance. In some cases the thief was punished by being reduced to slavery. Loans with excessive interest were ordinary, the debtor and his children often becoming enslaved to the lender. Verbal insults were punished with great severity. It was also regarded as a great insult to step over a sleeping person, and they even objected to wakening one asleep4. This seems to refer to the widespread belief of the soul leaving a sleeping body. Their worse curse was, â€Å"May thou die sleeping. The male children underwent a species of circumcision at an early age, which was but preparatory to further rites. Their oaths of fidelity, in conventions of peace and friendship, were ratified by the ceremony of blood- brotherhood, in which a vein of the arm being opened, the flowing blood was drunk by the other party. Among these people was sometimes seen that singular mania for imitation called by the Javanese sakit latar, on the Amoor olon, in Siberia imuira, and in the Philippines malimali. This peculiar malady, presumably the result of a deranged nervous system, manifests itself as far as I can gather, in the following anner, the afflicted person is seized with a desire to- 125 copy or imitate the actions and movements of others, and will do the most extraordinary and ridiculous things to attain his object. The despair induced by this strange mania and its consequent ridicule, urges the unfortunate to end his life in the dreaded Amok. These unfortunates were sometimes attacked by the amok frenzy. Is is certain that gold and copper mines have been worked in the islands from early implements, and the gold was formed into ornaments, or used as a medium of exchange. The ruder mountain tribes brought much gold from the interior, and raded it to the lowland people in exchange for various coveted articles. Several of the tribes were in the habit of tatooing the body, the Bisaya being the most noted for the practice. The Catalangan Iraya used for tatoo patterns, and as decorations for sacred places certain marks and characters which appeared to be of Chinese or Japanese origin. The Iraya proper used only straight and simple curved lines like those of the Aieta. The Ysarog (Issar ¶), a primitive race of mountaineers who have been isolated for centuries, are said by later writers to resemble the Dyaks of Borneo. Time was reckoned in former days by suns and moons, and feasts were held on the occurrence of certain astronomical phenomena. Brass gongs were much used at these feasts, and also on war expeditions. Such are some of the notes collected in reference to this interesting race. These Tagalo, these Bisaya, these Pampango, and Cagayane were despised by their Iberian conquerors as being ignorant savages; but, as the good old padre says in his MS. , they were worthy of being placed on a superior level to certain ancient people who possess a more illustrious fame. And who shall say it was not so ? How to cite Prehistoric civilization in the philippine, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Rational Argument Security and Current Issues in Airport

Question: Describe the Rational argument Security and Current issues in airport? Answer: Introduction Air voyage is a snappy and invaluable methodology to accomplish an end of the line. Despite the way that various wayfarers may challenge of skipped flight tickets, setbacks in the midst of the events, and the amount of cartable sacks they are permitted to bring onto the plane, air escapade is a key piece of smart transport. One key piece of terminal system is security system. Today, security is a noteworthy need that air terminals must give totally. Due to the late adversary strikes on Sept 11, 2001, plane terminals nearby avionics courses require their customers to feel safe. An eagerness for air terminal security took me to the Tallahassee Local Airport. Beside the event surge, the workplace is not an involved position. I land there on a Weekend evening around one week after the adversary strikes. Found in an immeasurable rectangle-shaped making, there is not a lot of development proceeding outside of international terminal. One or two people glide about out of international terminal walking towards the vehicle auto parking space and yellow taxi line one piece of the making. No control point of view vehicle halting is permitted and there are cops circulated before the making to confirm that guests stick to this rule (FAA Advises Air Travelers on Airport, 2001). Current issues I get into terminal and seat myself before the course of action surfaces. I foresee that the workers will be comprehensive while asking the general security concerns. Has your stuff been in your proprietorship at all times? Has anyone accommodated you anything or requested you to bring on or take a gander at any things for them? These are basic concerns to ask, in light of the fact that a system used by terrorists is to cover an effect inside an oblivious particular's stuff. An exchange method is to give something, maybe a toy or toy to some individual who is going to board an air transport. That guiltless giving off an impression of being thing may truly be an effect or some distinctive perilous device (howstuffworks.com, 2001). With cops wandering all through terminal I would incline toward not to look conspicuous. I endeavour to show up as if other individuals who are with seeing tolerantly holding up to see relatives parts. I imagine that if individuals know you are checking them they put on an outer surface. By barring myself, I am prepared for overview the adventurers compare with the wellbeing focused contrivances without changing their timetable with my vicinity. As I sit in the annoying seats, I watch that there are generally few voyagers weighing in. The game plan surfaces have emerge or two individuals working. In the meantime, inside a half-hour more individuals begin to take a gander at in. I look at the encounters of the travellers searching for any indication of anxiety or instability. There is none. Everyone is proceeding with their standard lifestyle. These calm displays that voyagers have driven me to research more into whether they are incorporated about preparatory contrivances. The game plan guests let you know to the explorers about engaging emerge bear on every individual and tension the likelihood of fascinating request by security before getting on the flying machine. As demonstrated by the Government Aircraft Management, tourists must be arranged to present a real picture recognition card with their getting on goes. The guests similarly depict that without an answer no one can viably encounter the accompanying reason for confirmation, the steel sensors. Any person who comes to overall terminal to draw near relatives will need to defer on the other side. The adventurers stick to these solicitations and there are no disputes or concerns. Rationale Since security is a noteworthy sensitivity to voyagers and avionics courses, I explored the record and propelled course of action. I expected to know which one was gotten more and if one kind of game plan was more secure than the other course of action. Adventurers' fly immeasurable miles consistently and unfortunately now and again they use passes fabricated from stole plan stock-the file whereupon an answer is conveyed. The Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC), the best supplier of airfare stock universally and the crucial supplier for U. S. wander powers, confirm that frustrations from stole plan stock are kind of immaterial, charging the multibillion-dollar air wander industry simply several million money yearly. Regardless, travel affiliations thing, varying that the burglaries of plan stock cost immeasurable money yearly. Curve communicates that stole plan stock is less hurting with the use of cutting edge passes. The constant improve in automated ticketing, according to various air wander forces, will diminish the necessity for airfare stock and in this way may over the long haul lessen plan stock robbery. Various powers furthermore note that the steady improve in mechanized ticketing may soon centre the issue because, with file passes, wander affiliations and other plan suppliers will have less need to hold extensive heaps of airfare stock. This decreases the chance for possible theft (United States. General Accounting Office. , 2001). Integration Regardless of the way that the wandering open did not give off an impression of being at danger from terrorists or unlawful untouchables who could use passes from stole game plan stock, air travel fragments at the time considered that unmindful adventurers obtained and used pretty much all these passes. Forces weight that terrorists are unlikely to intentionally use passes from stole stock because doing so will likely grow their probability of recognition. Likewise, they point out that sorted out foe classes have agreeable plans and access to defiled individual recognition to purchase true blue passes. Notwithstanding the way that the electronic plan is highlighted to be more secure and more even minded, I did experience an issue in the midst of a trip over the U. S. Declares. My returning outing from the state of Utah to California did not contain the comfort and protection of the propelled game plan. As I reviewed in before I sheets the flying machine the course of action authority couldn't find my name in the machine. In the wake of rehashing tries to find my name the course of action master found that my answer had been unequivocal under the name of a mate who wandered with me. After we reviewed our totes we started to the leaving checkpoint to get a report game plan. The game plan master at the checkpoint passed us our passes barely looking at our driver's licenses. As I dissected the course of action I watched that she provided for me the erroneous game plan. The course of action had the erroneous name on it and I had revealed her my permit. Regardless of the way that using t he electronic course of action actuated issues I accuse the plan guests for being imprudent. Conclusion The association in the middle of voyagers and air terminal protection has made an alternate relationship. Security and wellbeing measure is the most basic on both the voyager and air journey mind. Aeronautics courses, for instance, Delta surrenders and advancing bits of knowledge as for flight tickets and the efforts to establish safety that it is getting to check the certification of its adventurers. Explorers can look upward this unpretentious components on the Internet. Aeronautics courses and the Government Aircraft Management locales furthermore give this organization. On the off chance that strikes happen before long there may be a colossal loss of air voyage, and air wander pay may persevere altogether more than they did in the midst of the month of September (Delta.com, 2001). Plane terminal preparatory contrivances may change far and wide, yet as an America and in light of the late strikes turning around air wander, I do have issues in the matter of whether preparatory characteristics are totally required in the United Declares. I acknowledge that the America game plan of air terminal protection should recognize the tight exercises that other air terminals complete. Concerning the Tallahassee Local Airport, it has finished getting extra exercises to secure their flying transports and voyager certification (Lovasz, 2001). To confirm voyagers that it is secured to fly, judicious characteristics should keep be tight and fairly required. As people endeavour to proceed with their lives there will constantly be instability concerning whether the air wander they are going on is secured. In case preparatory idiosyncrasies stay compelling, it will send the affirmation that voyagers have lost in air wander. References 1. Delta.com. (2001, October 11). Delta Reports September Traffic. Retrieved from Delta.com: tacindex.jsp?file=SeptTraffic.htmltactype=Currenttacitem=Releasetitle=Delta%20R2. FAA Advises Air Travelers on Airport. (2001, October 14). Airline Security Measures. Retrieved from Federal Aviation Administration Public Affairs: https://www.faa.gov/apa/update.htm3. howstuffworks.com. (2001, September 27). How Airport Security Works. Retrieved from How Stuff Works: https://www.howstuffworks.com/airport-security.htm.4. Lovasz, M. (2001). Personal Interview. 5. United States. General Accounting Office. . (2001). Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Aviation, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives: Issues Associated with of Theft of Stock Used to Create Airline Tickets. Washington: GAO. Appendix: Argument Map